The largest organ of your body, skin, is made up of 3 main layers:
This is the outermost layer of your skin — i.e., the part of your skin that you see. The epidermis layer acts as a barrier to protect your skin and prevents the entry of external intruders such as infection, heat, light, and injury. The top, dead cells of this layer are constantly flaking off and are replaced with new cells pushed up from the lower layers of the epidermis.
The epidermis is further divided into four layers: stratum basale, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, and stratum corneum. In parts of the body where the skin is thick and hairless, such as your hands and feet, the epidermis has an extra layer called stratum lucidum.
The stratum basale is the basal (deepest) layer of your epidermis. It has a rich blood supply.
The stratum spinosum contains cells with spines that link together by anchoring structures called desmosomes. This layer starts making the key protein of your skin called keratin as well as helps prevent water loss from your body.
Stratum granulosum has a grainy look due to high levels of keratin.
Stratum corneum is the outermost layer of the epidermis—the only layer visible to your eyes. The keratin protein is most abundant in this layer. This layer contains dead cells that are periodically shed and replaced. It acts as the first line of defense against germs that could enter your body and make you sick.
Underneath the epidermis, lies the thicker and more complex layer called dermis. It contains nerves, sweat glands that make sweat, hair follicles (tiny pits in which hairs grow), and blood vessels that supply your skin. The dermis also has sebaceous (oil) glands that produce a sticky substance called sebum. Sebum is what keeps your skin soft, supple, and hydrated.
3. Subcutaneous layer
It is the bottommost layer of your skin that is made up of fat cells and attaches your skin to the underlying muscles and bones.
Healthy, beautiful skin starts with a healthy, wholesome diet. Your skin mirrors your inner health status. Having a poor diet causes your skin to age before time. When it comes to skin aging, prevention is worth a pound of cure. And the best preventive strategy against skin aging is an all-rounded, well-balanced diet consisting of carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, and essential minerals. Human skin is continually exposed to environmental damage, in particular, the harmful ultraviolet rays from the sun or pollution.
Daily Skin Care Tips
The secret to great skin doesn’t always lie in your genes. Instead, how you treat your skin daily, has more of a huge effect on what you view in the mirror.
The main steps in a skin-care routine comprise:
Washing your face daily is the cornerstone of a good skincare routine. Every morning, splash your face with water and use a gentle face cleanser designed for your skin type. Having said that, make sure that your skin doesn’t feel tight after it’s treated with a cleanser. The skin becomes tight when it’s dry. This simply means that the cleanser you’re using isn’t designed for your skin type and is drying it out further. Plus, do not over wash, as that will strip off your skin’s natural oils.
While toning the skin isn’t necessary for everyone, women with oily or acne-prone skin are more likely to benefit from toning. It tends to balance your skin’s pH, restoring its acidic state so that it’s free of dirt or makeup impurities after cleansing. Moreover, your skin is better able to absorb the products that you’ll next apply on your skin.
3. Applying Serum and Sunscreen
Wear a sunscreen with an SPF of 30 or above at least 15 minutes before stepping outdoor. Then tap in a face serum to help seal in moisture and the sunscreen ingredients into your skin. The active ingredients of face serums, including peptides, vitamins, and minerals, penetrate the outer layer of your skin to deliver their benefits deep down.
Keeping your skin moisturized both day and night is vital for every skin type. Adequate hydration helps repair your skin barrier and strengthen it.3 It’s best to slather on your moisturizer while your skin is still damp to lock in the moisture. A moisturizer with a high SPF (of 30 or above) would be your best bet, as it will protect your skin from the ultraviolet rays and keep it hydrated at the same time.